How to File A VA Claim for Disability Compensation
Who can file?
At any point after you have completed military service, you may file an application for disability compensation. Here are the basic tests:
- you believe that military service has caused an injury or illness (called a "condition" by the VA) or
- you believe that a preexisting condition was aggravated by military service.
There are no time limits or restrictions except in a few very limited circumstances. As a general rule, you may seek disability compensation at any time for any condition that you reasonably believe was caused or aggravated by your service.
Can I file a claim myself? Do I need a lawyer?
The initial filing of a claim is simple. You may file the appropriate forms yourself or get help from an accredited Veterans Service Officer who will likely work for a Veterans Service Organization or a State Veterans Service Office. You are not allowed to pay anyone to represent you at this stage of the process.
How do I know whether it's worth filing a claim?
Let’s assume you are going to represent yourself in this claim. Before you file, you'll need to understand the basic requirements.
- Eligible military service: You must have done military service, and you must have a discharge that is other than dishonorable. If your discharge is other than honorable but not dishonorable, you may be qualified for only some types of benefits. Go here for information about challenging your discharge status.
- Current “condition”: You must have a current injury or illness (condition) that can be connected to your military service. This means that you should have a fairly clear diagnosis. It should be stated in a medical record prepared by a qualified health care provider (preferably a doctor). The more precisely defined the condition is in the record, the better.
- Evidence: You must have evidence to support your claim. The best evidence is an event that is recorded in a Service Medical Record (SMR). This is a detailed description of the cause of the injury or illness leading to your condition, how it was treated, and any residual effects of the event. If the condition is related to a non-combat event, you will need documentation of:
- A clear service connection: Your medical evidence must be clear enough to prove that your current condition is connected to the in-service event. This is called "service connection" or "nexus." If you can’t prove the service connection, you will not receive benefits.
What else do I need to know?
You should be well organized and prepared to deal with a lot of paperwork, including copying of files and searching for evidence. It helps if you:
- are familiar with searching for records on the Internet,
- own or have access to a scanner and copier
- are confident that you have the patience to deal with details.
The VA process, even at its best, is slow, prone to error, and requires constant attention. You are much more likely to be successful if you can organize your information and keep good records of interactions with VA. If you believe that you meet these requirements, We encourage you to apply for your deserved benefits. If you have trouble with these kinds of tasks, you may want to seek help from a VSO or your state veterans affairs office.
NOTE: If you are a servicemember, plan ahead. The process can be much easier for military members who are still serving. Once you file a VA claim, your Service Medical Record is sent to the VA by your branch of service. Thus, if a soldier visits medical for claimable injuries and builds a sound medical history of the injury while still in service, the process could simply involve filing a claim, going through a VA medical examination (if necessary), and waiting to hear back about your disability rating. Your military records become your VA evidence. Therefore, through good prior planning, veterans can avoid much of the headache involved in the claim process.
2015, updated Nov. 2020